Stones can be shaped and arranged in a variety of ways to build structures, from straightforward walls to ornate monuments. However, there are numerous types of stone masonry methods that have evolved over time in addition to the basic knowledge of laying stones.
For structures requiring a high level of precision, like cathedrals, palaces, and governmental structures, ashlar masonry is frequently used.
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is renowned for its distinctive curvaceous form and titanium-clad exterior. However, the building’s foundation and lower levels are constructed using Ashlar Masonry, a technique that involves carefully cut and arranged stone blocks.
Ashlar coursed masonry is frequently used in structures that need to be extremely precise and consistent, like institutions, courts, and libraries. The brickwork is exceptionally strong and attractive, but constructing one is expensive and time-consuming.
This method of masonry uses uncut, naturally formed stones that have irregular shapes. The stones are mortared together after being coarsely placed. The lack of durability and accuracy are a few drawbacks.
For structures like farmhouses or rural residences that are intended to blend in with their settings, rubble masonry is frequently used.
The Sagrada Família is an ongoing masterpiece of Gothic and Art Nouveau architecture. Gaudí’s design incorporates various architectural styles, and the exterior facades of the basilica feature intricate rubble masonry.
This method involves placing stones free of mortar. Rural regions frequently have dry stone walls, which are used as slope supports for terraces, retaining walls, and boundary walls. For the structure to be strong and durable, dry stone masonry demands a high level of skill.
Natural look and low maintenance are benefits, but the absence of durability and stability are downsides.
In this approach, the stone faces are left unpolished and protruded from the wall. In structures built during the Renaissance era, rustication is frequently used for decorative reasons. The stones’ rough surface stands out sharply in comparison to the nearby stones’ polished surfaces.
Its benefits include a distinctive and decorative appearance, but disadvantages also include maintenance and cleaning challenges.
The Palazzo Medici Riccardi, completed in 1460, is an example of Renaissance architecture. It served as the residence and seat of power for the Medici family, one of the most influential families in Florence during the Renaissance period. The exterior of the palazzo features rustication masonry.
This method uses stones of varying sizes and shapes that are puzzled together. The gaps between the stones are generally covered with mortar and they are typically placed in horizontal courses. It has excellent strength and a pleasant, rustic look, but it lacks stability and uniformity.
Ancient structures and strongholds frequently made use of polygonal masonry because of its unique and unpolished appearance and irregular form.
Although expensive and challenging to build, it is extremely robust and long-lasting.
The building’s exterior façade prominently features Cyclopean masonry that involves the use of large, irregularly shaped stones. These stones are carefully fitted together without the use of mortar, creating a visually striking and texturally rich surface.
It is a cladding method that includes applying a thin layer of stone to the exterior of a structure. The stone is typically cut into evenly thin sections and placed on an underlying material. In order to give the impression of a solid stone structure without the expense or weight of solid stone construction, veneered brickwork is frequently used to create a decorative façade for a building.
Compared to a structure made of real stone, its construction is lighter and cheaper, but there were drawbacks like the possibility of delamination and a lack of durability.
The building is known for its minimalist design and the extensive use of glass walls. However, the exterior walls feature veneered masonry, which involves the application of thin stone or brick veneer to a structural backing.
Stone is employed in a few other applications besides just construction. Stone arches and columns are a wonderful method of avoiding RCC in your design. When planning for a landscape with contours, stone retaining walls can be used.